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2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.

 

 

 




 

2- Which economic and social development?

Phnom Penh is the only important city of a country which counts nearly a quarter the urban ones. The agglomeration of Phnom Penh represents 9,1 % of the population of the country. The forecasts of growth of the areas do not upset current balance. The area of the Plain would see its weight currently decreasing by 51% with 48% in 2020. The principal stake of the development of the country will be in the installation of the secondary cities which will see their population quadrupling while the population of Phnom Penh does nothing but double in twenty years.

Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia since 1862 without interruption. That gives him a place particular and recognized by the authorities which must give him the means of holding its row. The functions of political and economic capital enable him to have a GDP from approximately 1,4 billion dollar (2003), 28% of the national GDP, that is to say approximately 1.140 $ per capita, three times more than the average of the country. Phnom Penh is richer than the remainder of Cambodia , but still quite poor: the GDP per capita in Bangkok is ten times superior there. As well in the collective interest as to reinforce the attractively of the city, of the important investments is necessary. One thus should not oppose the development of Phnom Penh , with that of the remainder of the country, with which capital is, used it of window and economic engine (+9% of economic growth). Indeed, for a certain number of investors, the choice is not between Phnom Penh and the Province, but between Phnom Penh and the concurrent metropolises of the South-East Asia .

The effort of rebuilding of the infrastructures of Phnom Penh for ten years has represented more than 540 M USD that is to say approximately 9% of the national effort of rebuilding. It is equivalent to the weight of the population of the city in the whole of the country. The tripling of the GDP of Phnom Penh for ten years has shown the very strong profitability of the public investment: 1,5 M USD invested by the private sector, according to CDC\'S (Cambodia Development Council), for which it is necessary to add the multitude of local investments lower than 1million USD which represent more of the double. A dollar invested in the infrastructures with Phnom Penh supports eight dollars of private investments. Phnom Penh offers the best output of the public investment for the total investment to Cambodia .

According to the investigations carried out by the National Institute of the Statistics near the households and the economic actors, Phnom Penh contributes, in 2003, with height of more than 115 M USD to the development of the provinces, that is to say 9% of its GDP by the transfers via the budget of the State and the transfers of money of the families, not included the transfers via the investment of Phnom Penh towards the Province. The economic development of Phnom Penh supports the development of the other provinces.

The function of capital of the Kingdom implies that the central functions of the State must be localized in Phnom Penh , which determines administrative offices, legislative, legal and executive on the most level of the country. These functions determine single highly strategic activities in the Kingdom which implies the reception of the representatives of the State. These functions require a high degree of representation, in particular as regards quality of space installation, urban management and safety. Phnom Penh is the reflection of the quality of the national representation.

In addition, the administrative offices and the urban services of the capital mobilize a strong local institutional representation. The central functions which gather more than 46.000 civil servant, of which an affected quarter with the Municipality, allow the development of a broad economic activity from which profits the private sector and who allows to accommodate the national and foreign delegations for the behavior of international meetings.

The localization of the central power and the availability of the workforce more qualified than somewhere else leads the nearness of the central functions offices of the main private companies implanted in the country. It explains partially the preferential localization of the activities of transformation in Phnom Penh with near half of the industrial employments of the country.

The service sector is particularly mobilized by the presence of the public and private decision-making functions, so grouping include the third party of the employments of this sector in Cambodia , of which most of those who generate the strongest surplus.

Finally, the presence of the inhabitants to whom it is necessary to add the pendulum migrations about 250.000 persons establishes the widest, importing market of consumption of the country, which generates a consequent commercial activity, distributed between forty and one markets, a dozen shopping centers and supermarkets and dozens thousand businesses along streets

The decision of the government to direct the productive activities to the secondary cities, the development of the national territory of which mainly Sihanoukville and the border zones for the market of export, will allow to balance better. So, the industrial production, even heavy, will have to become established outside Phnom Penh when it is intended for the export. Also, seen the exiguity of the municipal territory it\'s better to consider its urban agriculture as residual and especially turned to the market garden production and piscicole. On the other hand, activities intended for the supply of consumer goods for the metropolitan population will find completely their place in suburbs, since they are not polluting or nuisantes. The infrastructures of exchanges and storage take a particular importance in the device. To ensure a better rate of formal employment and to limit the formation of shantytowns, the diversification of the economic functions, including the reception of light industries and construction, must be led.

The function of capital, the integration of Cambodia in the ASEAN and WTO, lead an important activity of business tourism. With more than 50 % of hotel rooms, 30 % of guest houses rooms and 60 % of the travel agencies of the country, Phnom Penh have the most important tourist activity of the country, in front of Siem Reap but differently. Phnom Penh can become a stage between a cultural tourism to Angkor and tourism of relaxation and leisure activities in the seaside to develop these trump cards imply to lead a policy of development of the architectural and landscaped patrimony.

Phnom Penh has certain number of comparative advantages, in particular the cost of the land tax and the workforce, correct accessibility to the international level and its position on the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh Ville. But certain number of weaknesses must be reduced, notably the weak confidence of the investors connected to the legislative frame, the high cost of the energy and the telecommunications, and the lack of qualified hand cover. The fall of the productive private investments of more than 1 Million USD in Phnom Penh since 1999 shows the urgency to consolidate these trump cards. The priority of the Government given to the electric production, the very fast increase in the subscribers of the companies of telephone and the fast improvement of the quality of the road network will appreciably reduce the costs in the very next years reinforcing quickly the competitiveness of Phnom Penh. The still fragile economic takeoff which we attend today will be strengthened by a better organization of the urban space and the optimization of the capacities of the existing infrastructures of transport.

A municipal exiguous territory

The municipal territory of 375 km2 is particularly exiguous in comparison with that of the metropolises of the region, creating artificially Phnom Penh as a town, and stressing the effect of the distances from wealth with the rest of the territory.

Today, 150.000 inhabitants of the town live outside the limits of the Municipality, in the province of Kandal , notably in Takhmao and along main national roads 1, 4, 5 and 6A. The population making alternantes migrations towards Phnom Penh is of the order of 250.000 persons. The \"day population\" of Phnom Penh exceeds 1.500.000 persons. The setting-up of the activities extends beyond so widely administrative limits, mainly to Takhmao and along the national road 4 which welcomes about fifty factories on twenty kilometres.

The National Institute of the Statistics estimates that the Municipality of Phnom Penh will accommodate nearly 2.000.000 inhabitants by 2020. The Office of the Urban Affairs planned estimation to 2.250.000 inhabitants in the conglomeration of the people in Phnom Penh , including the population of urban districts agglomerated on Kandal, and a population of 2.500.000 persons living in the metropolis. So, a third of the population of Kandal will be bound by an employment in the agglomeration of Phnom Penh . On the horizon of the master plan, with the widening of the metropolitan surface, the problems of coherence of installation and urban management thus will strongly increase if the territorial limits of the Municipality are not widened.

Improvement of the great infrastructures, keys of the development

Phnom Penh reached a level of equipment higher than that of the year Seventies. The efforts must be continued to give to the capital services of international level. The main part of the infrastructures will have to be carried out in suburbs whose population is already more important than that of the four Khans central. The growth of the population from here to 2020 will be about 100.000 inhabitants in the four Khans central against 600.000 in the three Khans peripheral.

Phnom Penh profits from a privileged river situation to the crossing of Mekong , Sap and Bassac and a localization to the crossing of two terrestrial axes: the axis Bangkok-Ho Chi Minh City and the corridor of development Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville, international maritime outlet of Cambodia .

Heavy transport is made by the road with in complement the boat on Mekong and Sap, and the railroad since Sihanoukville. The terminal points and their mode of management constitute the principal stakes for the external exchanges of Phnom Penh . The platforms of exchanges, of which some will be multimode, are the principal points on which it is necessary to improve the effectiveness of transport for the distribution downtown.

It is proposed that a big route of distortion of Phnom Penh, which exists already partially today with the road Asian Pan which joins the South of Takhmao, and the beltway which joins the dike of Kop Srov. With the bridge on Bassac to foresee in the South of Takhmao, allows putting in relation all the national networks which converge on Phnom Penh .

The limited character of the air market domesticates and the absence of Airline Company based of scale, limits the airport to a function of extremity of international network served via the regional hubs. Its current equipment allows welcoming traffic of an importance much superior to the long-term forecasts. The proximity of the center is an appreciable regional asset. The elongation of the runway is intended to develop the traffic cargo boat and to allow the takeoff to the full big temporary carriers (A-380 or B-747). It is necessary to improve its road sideboard and to supervise the evolution of the urban environment in the axis of tracks.

The creation of the Publicly-owned establishment of the Port authority of Phnom Penh allows a faster development of the harbor activity downtown. The localization of the port downtown is a comparative advantage compared to the road. The idea to move the port downstream on the Mekong is definitively abandoned, except for transport presenting environmental risks (hydrocarbons, chemicals). It is necessary to supplement the device by optimizing the current harbor installations, by developing new sites as that of the km 6 which makes it possible to connect the river with the road and the train.

The creation of a new railway station in the convergence of networks existing in the western entry of the town is foreseen. The preservation of the railway station in the town center, besides its function of terminus travelers, allows the carriage of goods furnishing the businesses of the town center. The transfer of the maintenance functions and sorting will be moved towards the western suburb to release necessary spaces for the redeployment of the town center activities: a part of the grounds of the railroad situated along Boeng Kak must be reorganized to spread the center in a landscaped quality frame.

The creation of a logistic platform is necessary to treat under good conditions flows of essential goods for the provisioning of the city and the export of the industrial production. In the current world economy, the organization of the logistic functions makes the difference in economic terms of performances. A logistic platform makes it possible to gather means (various customs, safety, services...) and to offer a high level of services and competences to the companies. The selected localization is in direct bond with the new railway station proposed in Samraong and directly connected with the western ring road. This site allows a good inter-modal articulation road-iron, also present the advantage to be close to the airport and to be able to be connected by railway with harbor facilities.

The line of historically missing connection between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh Ville proves to be essential like vector of development between the two metropolises for the passenger traffic and goods. The shod line at the present time envisaged does not offer interest for the economic engine of the country. Indeed, the bend via Loc Ninh until Ho Chi Minh Ville is 480 km, instead of 230 km by the road, which is more double returning the not competitive train. It will quickly turn out necessary to create a new additional ground link in the overloaded National Road 1 and only the railroad will be able of answering the scale of the demand. The master plan reserves the plan of a direct railroad towards Ho Chi Minh Ville with a bridge on the Mekong on the right of Phnom Penh .

The treated on a hierarchical basis network of main public road network in three levels is registered on the master plan. It is structured by bypasses. The first level corresponds to influences of the order of 60m, the second in influences furthermore of 30m and the third of the order of 20m.

The problem of the increasing congestion of the traffic inside the town, where the car park doubled in ten years obliges to set up a system of public transports. The use of the existing railroads is envisaged to make intra-urban shuttles circulate. This system will create a skeleton of sideboard for the West and the North of the town. It should be completed by a system of public transport in bus lane (bus or tramway) towards Takhmao in the south and by a buckle of sideboard inside the central districts.

A network of big canals and boengs is also registered to allow a satisfactory functioning of the hydraulic system and prevent the risks of flood, notably by allowing the temporary stocking of waters of thunderstorm before pumping.

This Bleu network is accompanied by Farming networks which is made up in part of the zones of expansion of the Boengs in period of rain, and which are used as public parks in dry season. Other public parks no easily flooded are created on various dominical grounds (old discharge, accesses of boeng put out of water...). A part makes up of conceded equipment. The zones of villages also take part in this farming network. Installations in these zones are limited to operations of low density. The Farming network is supplemented by connections between the principal parks and with the river.

Housing Policy

The improvement of the urban services and the infrastructures takes part in the improvement of the Habitat. In the same way, the denomination of the land and real market meets more and more the requirements in residences thus decreasing the pressure for the formation for abstract districts. However, the accessible production of little expensive formal flats or building lands for the deprived population is the problem the most difficult to resolve. It concerns several thousand families every year. Five orientations are defined to solve the question of housing:

  To flux the land and real market to develop the offer of the sector deprived for all the categories of population. An observatory of land and real estate with regular meetings which gather the actors concerned will be set up to share information, to facilitate the activity of the investors and to structure the profession of the property developers. This device is completed by the implementation of the loans at incentive rates intended to solvency a bigger part of the population.

  To develop the land offer by giving the priority to the realization of the basic infrastructures (roads, drinking water, electricity, drainage, public transport) in the suburbs whose grounds are less expensive.

  To develop a reserved land offer with the populations stripped on private grounds of the State (social concessions, grounds bought by a Land agency to create) in suburbs, arranged with small pieces and slightly equipped.

  To develop the private social rental market of centre town by operators deprived thanks to a measured thickening of the buildings downtown, an inciting policy for the rehabilitation of the old apartment buildings of the historical center and thanks to inciting measurements (reduction of tax on the social locative, loans long term at preferential rates, reduction of the costs of connection...),

  To better integrate the informal districts which can be maintained on the spot, while delocalizing the illegal occupations of the public domain.

 Lawful and operational tools for better managing the city

The Municipality of Phnom Penh crosses an important stage of its development by adopting a document of strategic economic planning for its economic, social and spatial development on the horizon 2020.

It is able to propose actions of development within a framework of territorial coherence which was missing since decades. Coordination between the sectors and the scales of development constitutes a difficult stake that must assume the Municipality.

The application of the master plan establishes a new phase of development which will be determining for the adoption of the tools of at the same moment sector-based and localized management. This phase should see being set up of new tools of management of the city which answer better the objectives of fight against the poverty by the solidarity and the economic development, durable development by a landscaped policy and purification, and intensification of the good governance by a bigger local autonomy.

The debates in progress on the adoption of the new organic law and the support of the international co-operation to help the Municipality to set up its management tools urban (regulations, operational projects) will be determining in the control of the development.